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and mountains. Such countries as France,
England, Egypt, Japan, appeared and reappeared
in history like natural, necessary things, and
though there were such larger political efforts as
the Roman Empire, they never attained an
enduring unity. The Roman Empire held
together like wet blotting-paper ; it was always
falling to pieces. The older Empires, beyond
their national nuclei, were mere precarious
tribute-levying powers. What I have already
called the world patchwork of the great and little
Powers, was therefore, under the old horse-and-
foot and sailing-ship conditions, almost as much
a matter of natural necessity as the sizes of trees
and animals.
Within a century all this has been changed and
we have still to face up to what that change
means for us.
First came steam, the steam-railway, the
steamship, and then in a quickening crescendo
came the internal combustion engine, electrical
traction, the motor car, the motor boat, the
aeroplane, the transmission of power from central
power stations, the telephone, the radio. I feel
apologetic in reciting this Well-known story. I
do so in order to enforce the statement that all
the areas that were the most convenient and
efficient for the old, time-honoured way of living,